This study aims to compare the differences between the Max Eschig 1990 edition of Heitor Villa-Lobos’s Twelve Études for Guitar and the recently-discovered 1928 manuscript of this piece by Villa-Lobos. Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959) is a notable figure in classical music as being one of few mainstream classical composers who has been a capable guitar ist. The Twelve Études for Guitar is one of the most frequently -performed works for the classical guitar and is innovative in examining extended techniques and the lushness of sounds that can be emmanated from the instrument. The first edition of this piece was published by Éditions Max Eschig of Paris in 1953 and was revised into a second edition in 1990 that rectified misprints. Recently, however, a manuscript in Villa-Lobos’s hand was unearthed which dated back to 1928. This version is exceptionally different than the current Eschig edition. In this study, I will analyze differences in the versions and use informed sources to shed light on the true intentions of Heitor Villa-Lobos as a means to enhance an understanding of this remarkable set of studies.