The topic of this treatise is a comparison between autograph manuscripts and published editions of selected guitar works by the Brazilian composer Heitor Villa-Lobos. The works involved in this comparison are as follows: Suite Popular Brasileira (consisting of the pieces Mazurka-choro, Schottisch-choro, Valsa-choro, Gavota-choro, and Chorinho), Choros no. 1, and Five Preludes. The Suite Popular Brasileira and Five Preludes were published by the French publisher Max Eschig and the Choros no.1 by the publishing firm Artur Napoleão. The manuscripts available for this research are mainly by the composer himself; additional primary sources include manuscripts by Arminda Villa-Lobos (Choro no. 1 and Schottish-choro) and Abel Carlevaro (Prelude no. 4). The primary sources are compared with the published editions, and the differences are noted and discussed. One of the primary aims of this study is a contextualization of the guitar in the life and work of the composer. This is accomplished by means of a survey of existing literature; it contains biographical data and a brief stylistic description of each known piece for guitar solo written by him.