2018, The Musical Sources of Spiš / Zips and Central Europe, edited by Janka Petőczová
While learning the history of Spiš and Silesia we can note that, since the Middle Ages, these two regions had been getting closer to each other not only because of trading but also cultural exchange. “e territories and the borders were changing and in the time of the Reformation and Counter Reformation Spiš – as a part of Upper Hungary, and Silesia – connected with the Bohemian Crown, appeared to be in the same country: under the Habsburgs’ rule. “e Protestant confession at that time found favorable conditions among the society of both regions although there were events such as the “irty Years War, as a result of which populations were ultimately decimated. “e strong centers of Protestant culture were among others the Silesian Duchy of Oleśnica and Ziębice, the Duchy of Legnica-Wołów-Brzeg and mainly the Duchy of Wrocław which was very determined to cultivate Lutheran spirituality. A very important role in Wrocław musical education was played by schools operating at three the biggest Protestant churches of this city: St. Elizabeth, St. Mary Magdalene and St. Bernardine. “ey created good conditions for artistic activity, especially connected with poetry and music but it was also a source of interest for composers from cities of other regions, for example Spiš. In Levoča and Bardejov were performed pieces written by Matthäus Appelles von Löwenstern (1594-1648) and also by Gregor Lange (ca. 1540-1587), “omas Fritsch (1563-1619), “omas Elsbeth (a2er 1624), Samuel Besler (1574-1625) or Tobias Zeutschner (1621-1675).